Hệ thống âm vị

1. Âm vị phụ âm

Tiếng Việt có 23 âm vị là phụ âm. Tương ứng với 23 âm vị phụ âm thì có 24 cách đọc (phát âm), và được ghi lại bằng 27 chữ viết. 27 chữ viết này được hình thành từ 19 chữ cái (con chữ).

Âm vị phụ âm

Chúng tôi viết “p+h,…” là muốn biểu thị chữ ph, … được tạo thành từ sự tổ hợp của 2 phụ âm phh,…

Những âm tiết không có âm đầu (như: âm, êm, oai, uyên) khi phát âm được bắt đầu bằng động tác khép kín khe thanh, sau đó mở ra đột ngột gây nên một tiếng bật. Động tác khép kín ấy có giá trị như một phụ âm và người ta gọi là âm tắc thanh hầu, kí hiệu: /?/.

2. Âm vị nguyên âm

Tiếng Việt có 16 âm vị là nguyên âm (trong đó có 13 nguyên âm đơn, 3 nguyên âm đôi) và 2 âm vị là bán nguyên âm*. Trong 16 âm vị nguyên âm và 2 âm vị bán nguyên âm thì có 17 cách đọc (phát âm), và được ghi lại bằng 20 chữ viết. 20 chữ viết này được hình thành từ 12 chữ cái (con chữ).

Âm vị nguyên âm

(Nguồn: Trung tâm Từ điển học)

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